Anemia Sickle Cell Anemia (SCD) is a hereditary disease and one of the most common blood diseases worldwide. Sickle cell anemia affects more than 1 million people in India each year; geographically, there is a sickle cell belt that is part of some tribal communities in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Kerala, Gujarat, Tamilnadu, and Odisha.
World Sickle Cell Day is celebrated on June 19 each year to help raise awareness about sickle cell anemia, its challenges and treatment options. Sickle cell anemia (SCD) is a group of blood disorders that are inherited from a B. sickle cell anemia, an abnormality the oxygen-carrying protein (hemoglobin) in red blood cells. Because of this abnormality, the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen. Usually round, flexible red blood cells move easily through blood vessels. like sickles or crescents. The name sickle cell anemia was derived from this. These stiff, sticky cells get stuck in small blood vessels and slow or block the flow of blood and oxygen to parts of the body. Symptoms of sickle cell anemia usually appear when the child is around 5 months old. The main symptoms are:
- Pain in joints, abdomen or chest
- swelling of the hands and feet
- Frequent infections
- Growth retardation or puberty
- Visual disturbances
Sickle cell anemia is caused by a mutation in the gene on which it is found on the short arm of chromosome 11; in hemoglobin S replaces both β-globing subunits in hemoglobin (Hobs). Over the past 50 years, several epidemiological studies in different ethnic groups have shown that the prevalence of sickle cell gene in northeast India is 0-18%, 0-33.5% in West India, 22.5-44.4% in Central India, and 1-40% in South India Sickle cell anemia treatment focuses on preventing and managing complications related to the disease. People with sickle cell anemia need regular blood transfusions for life. However, a stem cell transplant (peripheral blood stem cells) offers the best chance of survival and recovery. This transplant can come from a sibling or family member.
However, there is only a 30% chance of finding a “compatible” donor sibling in the same Family. The remaining 70% of patients search for a compatible donor via a stem cell registry or a donor center, a database of voluntary donors in the age group 18-50.